Introduction: The Nature of Chemistry... 1

Chapter 1: Matter and Measurement... 15

Chapter 2: Atoms and Elements.. 56

Chapter 3: Molecules and Compounds... 101

Chapter 4: Principles of Reractivity: Chemical Reactions... 157

Chapter 5: Stoichiometry... 207

Chapter 6: Principles of Reactivitiy: Energy and Chemical Reactions... 255

Chapter 7: Atomic Structure... 312

Chapter 8: Atomic Electon Configurations and Cchemical Periodicity... 356

Chapter 9: Bonding and Molecular Structure: Fundamental Concepts... 397

Chapter 10: Bonding and Molecular Structure: Orbital Hybridization,
Molecular Orbitals, and Metallic Bonding... 457

Chapter 11: Bonding and Molecular Structure: Organic Chemistry... 494

Chapter 12: Gases... 546

Chapter 13: Bonding and Molecular Structrure: Intermolecular
Forces, Liquids, and Soluids... 593

Chapter 14: Solutions and Their Behavior... 654

Chapter 15: Principles of Reactivity: Chemical Kinetics...697

Chapter 16: Principles Reactivity: The Chemical Equilibria... 749

Chapter 17: Principles of Reactivity: The Chemistry of Acids and Bases... 794

Chapter 18: Principles of Reactivity: Reactions Between
Acid and Bases... 849


This is the third edition of CHEMISTRY & CHEMICAL REACTIVITY. Although some years have passed since the book was first conceived, the principle theme has remained the same: to provide a broad overview of the principles of chemistry and the reactivity of c hemical elements and compounds. We also have hoped to convey that chemistry, a field with a lively history, is also dynamic, with important new developments on the horizon. In addition, we want to provide some insight into the chemical aspects of the wo rld around us. For example, what materials are important to our economy, how does chemistry contribute to health care, and what role do chemists play in protecting the environment? By tackling the principles leading to answers to these questions, you ca n come to a better general understanding of nature and to an appreciation for some of the consumer products coming from the chemical industry. Indeed, one of the objectives of this book is to provide the tools and background information for you something of the chemical world is as important as understanding some basic mathematics and biology and having an appreciation for fine music and literature.

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